Useful French Phrases Essays On Leadership

Looking for ways to spice up your resume? 


Powerful resume action words are the answer. 


Let’s do an experiment. 


Take a look at your resume and count how many times you’ve used the phrase “responsible for.” Now, every time you see that phrase imagine a using a verb that packs a punch instead.


Using strong resume action words aka “resume power verbs” will make your resume come alive. 


It will also save you space and make your resume easier to read. That translates to - MORE INTERVIEWS.


Here’s what you’re going to find:


  • Tired resume words vs. powerful resume action verbs. 
  • Examples of good resume action words by category and profession.
  • Examples of how to use active resume verbs in your experience section.



1. How to Effectively Use Powerful Resume Action Words


Let me tell you a little story.


Okay, you’re at a party, and you notice a guy who keeps saying, “Let me tell you something.”


We’ll call him Andrew.


Andrew says,  “Let me tell you something. Once when I was climbing Mt. Everest….


Let me tell you something. Once when I was navigating the Amazon River....” 


At some point, you and your friends start saying, “No. Let ME tell YOU something.” 


Now, let me tell you something. I bet you don’t have a good impression of Andrew.


Andrew is a joke even though he’s climbed Mt. Everest and navigated the Amazon. Because all you noticed was his catchphrase - let me tell you something.


Now, imagine that you’re reading a resume and every bullet point in the experience section starts with “responsible for.” 


Do you think the hiring manager is going to pay attention to the interesting things that follow that boring and tired phrase? That’s a rhetorical question.


How can you avoid being like Andrew? Use strong resume action verbs. 


Let’s jump right into the examples of power words to use on a resume. 


So you’ve read the job description, and it lists the following as desirable skills: 


  • Leadership
  • Communication
  • Creativity and Problem Solving
  • Teamwork


Yes, you can use tired verbs for a resume when you start writing the bullet points in your experience section. Words like “led,” “communicated,” or “responsible for.” 


Or you can lead with strong verbs. Like these:


List of Strong Resume Action Words: Leadership


Resume Example Scenario: You managed / led / were responsible for a team of other employees. 


Tired resume words would include:


  • Led 
  • Managed 
  • Responsible for




Spearheaded the launch of a new service that resulted in a 10% increase in sales.




Was responsible for the launch of a new service.


Pro Tip: If you want to see more examples of how to use action verbs, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section.


Want to make sure your resume will hook every recruiter and get you that interview? Get our free checklist and learn what makes a job-winning resume: 46 Things You Need To Do Before You Send Your Resume


20 of the Best Resume Action Words for Leadership:


  1. Authorized
  2. Chaired
  3. Cultivated
  4. Delegated 
  5. Directed
  6. Enabled
  7. Executed 
  8. Facilitated
  9. Fostered
  10. Guided
  11. Headed
  12. Hosted 
  13. Inspired
  14. Mentored
  15. Mobilized
  16. Operated
  17. Orchestrated
  18. Oversaw 
  19. Spear­headed 
  20. Trained


Examples of strong resume power verbs in action: 


  • Administrative Assistant / Office Worker 


Trained a team of 3+ assistants for administrative positions. 



Directed a financial team of 5+ employees responsible for payroll.


  • Bartender / Food Service Worker


Mentored five candidates for management positions, resulting in a 10% boost in employee retention rates.



Spearheaded an initiative to boost customer interest in the store loyalty card, resulting in a full 20% increase in sales of the card. 



Hosted a webinar on how to increase click through rate by 25% through landing page design.



Oversaw the design and rebranding of 5 major campaigns for a large international company.



Enabled continuity among nursing teams by documenting ongoing needs and actions.



Orchestrated an annual awards gala for +200 key clients.



Mobilized the student body government to organize a fundraising event that brought in over $500,000 in contributions toward scholarships for underprivileged students.



Cultivated an extracurricular book club that resulted in 50+ students joining after 2 years and reading up to 15 books a year.



List of Strong Resume Action Words: Communication


Resume Example Scenario: You communicated / spoke / wrote / something.  


Tired resume words would include: 


  • Communicated 
  • Spoke
  • Wrote




Negotiated with vendors to lower office supply costs by 15%.




Communicated with office supply vendors.


20 of the Best Resume Action Words for Communication:


  1. Advocated
  2. Authored
  3. Clarified
  4. Composed
  5. Consulted
  6. Conveyed
  7. Convinced
  8. Corresponded
  9. Defined
  10. Explained
  11. Fielded 
  12. Illustrated
  13. Influenced 
  14. Informed
  15. Mediated
  16. Moderated
  17. Negotiated 
  18. Promoted
  19. Persuaded
  20. Publicized


Examples of strong resume power verbs in action: 


  • Administrative Assistant / Office Worker 


Influenced brand recognition through maintaining key media relationships.



Authored monthly reports for 4+ senior managers in line with reporting deadlines.


  • Bartender / Food Service Worker


Informed customers about food and wine pairings increasing wine sales by 15%.



Composed an updated version of our call script increasing self-reported customer satisfaction by 25%. 



Moderated panel discussions with leading industry experts, resulting in recognition as a thought leader in the industry.  



Promoted 15 major products for Coty across 3 major international markets.



Fielded patient care concerns by charting in patient and department records.



Conveyed a streamlined approach to the internal use of Salesforce among project leaders. 



Corresponded with 3 different universities to help establish an exchange program with schools in Asia.



Advocated a balance between classroom curriculum and test materials for a 40% increase in student scores on placement tests.



List of Strong Resume Action Words: Creativity and Problem Solving


Resume Example Scenario: You innovated / improved / organized something.


Tired resume words would include: 


  • Innovated
  • Improved
  • Organized




Devised a way to cut costs in the department by 15%.




Improved budget spending.


20 of the Best Resume Action Words for Creativity and Problem Solving: 


  1. Analyzed 
  2. Built
  3. Calculated
  4. Crafted
  5. Designed
  6. Devised
  7. Drafted
  8. Enhanced
  9. Fashioned
  10. Forecast 
  11. Formulated
  12. Initiated
  13. Invented
  14. Maintained
  15. Operated
  16. Overhauled
  17. Personalized
  18. Piloted
  19. Pioneered
  20. Showcased


Examples of strong resume power verbs in action: 


  • Administrative Assistant / Office Worker 


Overhauled a filing system to increase response rates for clients by 50%.



Formulated a budget plan that brought regular cost savings of 21% annually.


  • Bartender / Food Service Worker


Invented 10 new themed drinks bringing up sales by 4.5%. 



Personalized key customers’ shopping experiences which decreased returns by 50%.



Analyzed market trends resulting in a 10% increase in user engagement on our site.



Fashioned 15 separate email marketing campaigns for a 75% increase in click through rate.



Initiated a scheduling system that reduced patient waiting time by 15%.



Piloted a flex hours plan that increased employee productivity by 120%. 



Built 6 professional theater sets along with a team of 5 others.



Pioneered an after school program for underachieving students resulting in a 60% upswing in test scores across all subjects. 



List of Strong Resume Action Words: Teamwork


Resume Example Scenario: You cooperated / worked on / supported a team or project.


Tired resume words would include: 


  • Cooperated
  • Worked On
  • Supported




Contributed to an international team by providing French translations for +20 members.




Worked on a projects with a team of people.


20 of the Best Resume Action Words for Teamwork:


  1. Acknowledged
  2. Assimilated
  3. Blended
  4. Coalesced
  5. Collaborated
  6. Contributed
  7. Diversified
  8. Embraced
  9. Encouraged
  10. Energized
  11. Gathered
  12. Harmonized
  13. Ignited
  14. Joined
  15. Melded
  16. Merged
  17. Participated
  18. Partnered
  19. United
  20. Volunteered


Examples of strong resume power verbs in action:  


  • Administrative Assistant / Office Worker 


Energized +15 Project Managers to file 50% more safety reports across projects.



United the efforts of the finance and legal teams to reduce layoffs by 20%.


  • Bartender / Food Service Worker


Partnered with the chef to chop vegetables and prepare garnishes during peak hours cutting serving times by half. 



Gathered data on product details from sales to increase customer satisfaction by 30%.



Acknowledged a need for office-wide tech awareness through a partnership with marketing resulting in a 10% increase in properly filed incident reports.



Collaborated with the graphic design team to implement new brand guidelines across marketing materials company-wide.



Harmonized relationships between healthcare teams boosting efficiency by 20%.



Encouraged management to implement online inventory management software, boosting sales across company e-commerce platforms by 30%.



Participated in the organization of team-building activities resulting in 10x more efficiency among members.



Ignited cooperation between science departments to fund a series of 6 speakers to address the student body.


Pro Tip: Use present tense when you list responsibilities for your current role. 



2. Why Should You Use Powerful Resume Action Verbs?


What are action verbs?


Action verbs are powerful words that describe actions.Run. Walk. Sleep. Eat. 


Say these action verbs out loud to yourself. What happens? 


I bet you can see a person performing the action in your head. I say run, and you see a person running.


Now, what are resume action verbs?


Resume action verbs are strong words for a resume that describe your work responsibilities.Persuaded. Diversified. Analyzed. 


You’ve just read four lists of 20 action verbs to use on a resume - that’s 80 strong resume power words for you. You’re welcome. 


Also, it’s not about using fancy resume power words to sound smarter. In fact, using fancy resume power words has the opposite effect.


Using action verbs for a resume is about being specific.


That’s because good resume action verbs are more vivid and specific than tired “to be” resume verbs. In simpler terms, they make the pictures in your head.


For example:




The first example uses the form “to be”  - “I am.” Being something entails a lot more than doing something. “I am a driver” is a statement with an entire lifestyle packed into it. 


I drive” means one thing - I drive. You have a clear picture of a person driving. Why do you think that’s the only thing Ryan Gosling says in Drive?  


Bottom line? Good resume action verbs are simpler.  



3. Use Powerful Resume Action Words to Introduce Your Achievements


To add achievements to your resume you’ll want to use the PAR (ProblemActionResult) approach. 


In situation P(Problem), I did A (Action) which lead to R (Result)


Many of the examples above are achievements that follow the PAR approach. 


For example: 


Informed customers about food and wine pairings increasing wine sales by 15%.


Problem:Needed to increase wine sales.


Action:Paired dishes with wine.


Result:Wine sales increased 15%.


Resume Action Verb:  Informed


Final product? 


Informed customers about food and wine pairings increasing wine sales by 15%.


Pro Tip: You don’t need to include the problem when you write achievements. Use the PAR approach when you need to recall your accomplishments. Then lead with the action and end with the result.


Want more examples of achievements for resumes? Read our guide: “Examples of Professional Achievements to Put on a Resume [3 Tips]


Key Takeaway


Here’s the thing. Your resume should be one to two pages long. That’s because a recruiter is only going to spend a few seconds scanning it for relevancy. So, when you’re looking for good words to use in a resume, less is more.


Action words for a resume cut down on your word count and make your resume easy to read.


Also, strong resume action verbs will allow hiring managers to see you doing those actions. Add a couple of quantifiable achievements, and they can see you doing those things well. And that’s how you get called in for interviews.


Did we miss any good resume action words? Need more examples of power verbs to use in a resume? Let us know in the comments. 

latin phrases and expressions [edit]

latin terminology, origins, meanings, translations and usage examples

Below is a list of Latin terms which (to varying degrees) are still used in English.

Some of this Latin terminology is very common in general speech and written communications; other Latin terms are more rarely used, in specialized situations, notably for example in law, science, and education/academia.

Latin terminology, expressions and phrases feature widely in the English language. The modern meanings and usage, while evolved and adapted, mostly still generally reflect the original literal translations.

Latin is a regarded as a 'dead' language because it is not used as a main language in day-to-day communications and life.

Latin however remains very much alive as a highly significant language, especially in technical references.

Here are just a few examples of Latin terms which are used very widely in English, including some extremely common abbreviations:

  • ad hoc
  • alias
  • bona fide
  • e.g. (exempli gratia)
  • etc. (et cetera )
  • i.e. (id est)
  • N.B. (nota bene), and
  • P.S. (post script)

There are many more very familiar Latin terms in the listing below, together with the literal/original meanings, and modern usage examples.

For a 'dead' language, the resilience of Latin is extraordinary. Its resilience would be extraordinary were Latin a living language.

Latin is still taught to millions of students around the world, and will continue to be for a very long time to come.

Fundamentally this is because:

  • Latin is the (or a) main and most recent root language for many major world languages.
  • Also, for centuries, in fact for two millennia, Latin been a main language of scholarship and academia.

More specifically:

  • Latin has for many centuries been used widely in law. Law is crucial to governance and leadership, society and civilization, diplomacy and international relations, business, trade, and commerce, finance, the military, and therefore so is Latin.
  • Latin has for many centuries been the language of the Christian religion, notably of Roman Catholicism. Christianity became an empire of sorts, which in its own way for centuries effectively ruled most of the world.
  • Latin has for many centuries been a crucial language for all of the sciences, therefore Latin has been crucial also to innovation, invention, exploration, transport, discovery, medicine, health, anatomy, every human and animal condition, and life itself.
  • Particularly related to the above, Latin terminology remains the underpinning language of living things and the biological taxonomy which organizes our understanding of every living thing on the planet.
  • Latin, chiefly via French, had a significant influence in the development of the English language. The conventional English alphabet (along with those of the Romance languages) is known as the Latinate alphabet, because its origins are in ancient Latin. (The 'Romance' languages notably include Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, and Romanian.)
  • Latin phrases and words have entered (directly and unchanged) the English language, and many other languages too - and the words, rules and structures of Latin have determined - and continue to determine - the way that new words are created.

Latin is obviously vital for the operation of many fundamental professions and disciplines, and for the rest of us, Latin remains fascinating and helpful in the understanding of our day-to-day language, especially the Latin expressions and terminology which survive and arise in business, technical definitions, law, education, grammar, and science, etc.

Here is the listing of Latin terms, including some very common popular phrases, and lots of less common specialized, yet fascinating terminology:

list of latin terms, phrases, and expressions

Latin terms in the English language - technical, legal, popular, fascinating

Latin termliteral translationmeaning in use
abacustray/counting tableancient calculator
ab extra / intrafrom beyond/inside(legal terms) 'ab extra' refers to information from external sources (instead of self or mind) - 'ab intra' refers to information from the self or mind
ab origine / aboriginefrom the firstoriginal inhabitants, from the source, origin, etc - (derivation of the modern word 'aborigine')
ab iratofrom an angry manactions/words by an angry person - (a legal term, similar to 'in the heat of the moment')
ab ovofrom the eggfrom the beginning
absente reo (abs. re.)(with) the defendant being absent(legal term) - in the absence of the accused
a capite ad calcemfrom head to heelthoroughly/completely/from top to bottom - more loosely expressed 'from head to toe'
Achilles (Achilles heel)ancient Greek heroweakness - (a Greek word used in Latin - the metaphor refers to the legend of the hero Achilles, as a baby held by the heel and dipped into the river Styx by his mother Thetis to make him immortal, leaving his heel vulnerable, such that when shot there by an arrow he died, hence the 'Achilles heel' or simply 'Achilles' is a person's main weakness)
acta est fabulathe drama has been acted outit's all over/it's finished/the end
A.D. (anno domini)in the year of the Lorddenotes that the year is since Christ's birth in the Julian and Gregorian calendars - contrasting with B.C. (Before Christ), which signifies years 'Before Christ', which are counted backwards - there is no zero year
ad hocto/for thisimprovised/devised/applied spontaneously or purely for the purpose ('just for this')
a fortioriwith strengthall the more so, with greater reason
ad hominemto the manpersonally directed - (as when criticizing someone)
ad infinitumto infinityendlessly/for ever/without limit
ad interim (ad int)for the meantimein the interim/meantime/temporary/stand-in/
ad lib (ad libitum)with freedomfreely, improvised, spontaneously created - now most commonly an instruction or freedom to 'improvise' in performance, communication
ad litteramto the letterprecisely/according to the 'letter of the law'
ad nauseamto (produce) sea-sicknessto the point of causing nausea/unbearably tedious
a priori / a posteriorifrom what comes before/ after(these terms mainly refer to philosophical or mathematical assertions) - an 'a priori' fact is self-evident, known without need of direct specific experience/evidence (for example 'snow is cold') - an 'a posteriori' fact is based on observed evidence or experience, etc (for example snow fell in Ireland on [a particular date])
ad referendum (ad ref)to/for referringfor further consideration (elsewhere)
ad remto the thingto the matter in hand/directly relevant
adsumI am herepresent (formal answer to a rollcall)
aegrotathe is illdoctor's note - medical excuse/qualification awarded when exams are missed due to sickness
Aesopwriter of fables(see Aesop's Fables)
aetatis (aetat or aet)aged (number of years)aged... or 'of the age...' (precedes the age of someone/something)
affidavithe/she has declared under oatha sworn statement made voluntarily by a person, recorded by a qualified person, usually for legal purposes, such as admission in a court case
agenda (agenda sunt or agendum est)things that must be moved forwardlist of items for a meeting, order of discussion, set of aims, motivational factors - agenda now has a wide range of meanings, after initially referring to a meeting schedule
Aiax/Ajaxhero of Trojan Wara metaphor for size and stength
AlbionBritainthe ancient Greek word for Britain
alia iacta est / iacta alia estthe die is castthe die is cast - beyond the point of possible return, fully committed come what may - see the die is cast and cross the Rubicon in cliches origins - the phrase is attributed to Julius Casear, 49BC, on his invasion of Rome from Gaul - as with many other Latin phrases the 'i' of iacta is alternatively a 'j', so that the word was/is jiacta (although some say Caesar spoke this phrase in Greek anyway..)
alias dictus (alias)at another time calledotherwise known as/also known as/aka
alibielsewherea submission or claim, typically supported by proof/evidence, that an accused person was at a different place from the scene and time of a crime
alieni generisof a different kindof a different kind/of another type
alphaA (the letter)denotes the first of something, for example alpha-male (dominant male), or alpha-test (the initial release of technology/software among developers, prior to finalizing specification/features and beta-test, being final testing among users)
alma maternourishing motherone's college or university
alter egoother self/other Isecondary personality/other self/trusted friend
alumnusnursling/foster childgraduate or student of educational institution (alumna, alumni, alumnae are respectively female, plural and female plural)
a mensa et torofrom table to bedlegal separation (divorce)
amicus curiaefriend of courtan objective or neutral advisor in legal process
amore carenslove withoutloveless
amor vincit omnialove conquers alllove conquers all
amor proximilove one's neighbourlove thy neighbour/love your neighbour (US neighbor)
anno Dominiyear of our Lord(AD)/since BC (before Christ)
annus horribilis/terribilis/ mirabilishorrible/terrible/ wonderful year(different dramatic ways to refer to good/bad years)
ante bellumbefore warpre-war (which war depends on context/situation)
ante meridiem (a.m.)before middaybefore noon/morning/AM/am
apexsummit, crownpeak, top, pinnacle
appendixsupplementsupplement (extra document/body of text/information) - separately in anatomy an obsolete sac in humans connecting to large intestine - from appendere, 'hang upon'
aqua vitaewater of life(metaphorical reference to) a local/national/special drink - (used variously to refer to different drinks, typically local or national or particularly enjoyed from the speaker's view, commonly for example: wine, whisky/whiskey, brandy, ale, etc
arbiterjudge, witnessjudge, controller, arbitrator, umpire
ars gratia artisart for art's sakeart for art's sake - art that is free from non-artistic pressures/aims (e.g., profit, politics, etc)
Artium BaccalaureusArts BachelorBachelor of Arts/AB/BA/(university degree)
Artium MagisterArts MasterMaster of Arts/MA/AM/(higher university degree)
aureo hamo piscarito fish with a golden hook'money talks'/money gets results
Aurora Borealisgoddess of the northern dawnthe 'Northern Lights' atmospheric display, at certain times in the night sky far north - Aurora is the Roman goddess of the dawn - Borealis meaning northen in Latin is taken from the Greek Boreas, god of the north wind - Aurora Australis is literally 'goddess of the southern dawn', and refers to the 'Southern Lights' (being the equivalent phenomenon in the southern hemisphere) - australis means southern in Latin
australissouthernthe origin of the name Australia - from 'terra australis', southern land
ave Mariahail Maryhail Mary
a vinculo matrimonii(free) from the bond of marriagecomplete divorce (sometimes abbreviated to 'a vinculo')
betaB (the letter)notably 'beta-test', referring to the external release (to users) of machinery/technology/software (of completed specification/features) in the final stage of testing - compared with 'alpha-test' which is controlled release among developers aimed at fixing the features/specification prior to beta release
bis in die (b.i.d.)twice in a daymedical abbreviations - (for example instructions for taking tablets)
bona fidegood faithin good faith/honestly/genuine/real
cadit quaestiothe question fallsargument collapses/the central legal argument has collapsed (so move on)
caeteris (ceteris paribus)other things being equalall things equal/other things being equal
campusplain (grassland)university and its grounds
carpe diemseize the dayenjoy the opportunity/make the most of the chance - (the full quote is 'carpe diem, quam minimum credula postero' = 'enjoy today, trusting little in tomorrow' - from Horace's Odes)
casus foederisfall (action) (due to) league/alliancesituation causing action under a treaty
causa sine qua nona cause without which nota necessary condition
cave/cave canembeware/beware of the dogbeware, caution, take care, attention/beware of the dog
caveatlet one bewarea stipulation, condition, warning, exclusion, limit, etc - typically in formal contracts, also in verbal agreements
caveat emptorlet the buyer bewarebuyer beware/responsibility is with buyer
caveat venditorlet the seller bewareseller beware/responsibility is with seller
cerebrumbrainfront part of brain - considered advanced compared with early human brains and additional to animal brains - hence cerebral refers to intellectual rather than emotional or physical thought/behaviour/effect
certiorarito be made certaina writ issued by a higher court for documents from a lower court for the purpose of reviewing the lower court process/decision
cetara desuntthe rest are missingparts of the (written/created) work have not been found (despite research)
ceteris (caeteris paribus)all other things being equalassuming that no external factors alter the central question/point, conditional on there being no effect from variable external elements - (a qualifying statement establishing fixed conditions around a proposition, to enable a firm argument to be made)
citius altius fortiusfaster higher strongermotto of the modern Olympic games  
confer (cf.)comparecompare (with)/see also (as appears widely in dictionaries, etc)
circa (ca. or c.)aroundabout/approximately/roughly (referring to a quantity, date, time, etc)
codextreetrunk/wooden blockmanuscript/code of laws
cogito ergo sumI think therefore I existI think therefore I exist, or I think therefore I am - (originally recorded by French philosopher René Descartes, 1596-1650 - in Discourse on the Method, part IV, 1637-44, written mostly in French but with parts in Latin)
coitus interruptusgoing together interruptionwithdrawal before ejaculation (for contraception or other reason)
coitus more ferarumsex in the way of wild beasts(medical/humorous reference to) 'doggy style' sexual intercourse - historians assert that the expression in its Latin form was used in ancient Rome
compos mentisof sound mindin full possession of mental powers, sane (cf. non compos mentis) 
con (contra)againstagainst
coniunctis / conjunctis viribuswith united powers(acting) with united powers (towards a commonly agreed aim)
consensusagreementagreement (among a number of people) - (note that this word is related to the English word consent, not to census, which misunderstanding often produces the misspelling 'concensus')
consensus adaciumagreement of audacious/rash mena conspiracy
consensus facit legemconsent makes law(a principle that) any agreement between parties may be legally binding provided it does not violate law
consensus gentiumagreement wide/generalwide agreement/generally accepted belief or views
consensus omniumagreement of allagreement of all/general agreement
cornu copiaehorn of plentycornucopia/abundance (from various Greek legends, most popularly: The baby Zeus, hiding from his baby-eating father Cronus, was suckled as an infant by a goat/nursemaid, Amalthea. Zeus, having the strength of a god, accidentally broke off one of Amalthea's horns, which he then endowed with the power to produce unending nourishment (and anything else desired) for its owner
corrigendaitems to be corrected(draws attention to) corrections required in a manuscript before publishing
cui bono/malo?who will gain/lose?who stands to benefit/lose (from a particular action/situation)? - expressions in criminal investigation or other speculation - in attempting to reveal motive/responsibility
cum grano saliswith a grain of salttake (a comment) with a grain of salt/add a note of caution to a comment (in Roman times and more recent history too, salt was very valuable and symbolic of something not to regard lightly - Roman soldiers were paid in salt - salarium - hence the expression 'worth his salt' (someone is worthy of his/her wage)
(summa/magna) cum laudewith (greatest/great) praisetraditionally highest/2nd, and 3rd grades in a US university degree
curriculum vitaethe course of (one's) lifea resume or job/personal history/(commonly abbreviated to CV)
cursorrunner, courierpositional marker on an electronic display
de bonis asportatiscarrying goods away old legal term for larceny, which has largely been superseded by the term theft
de bono et maloof good and bad(of a decision) come what may/for good or bad/'whatever'
decimusa tenthfrom which 'decimate' originates - strictly
de dicto / de reof (the) word / of (the) thing(technical clarification of the nature of a statement so as to differentiate) - the wording of the statement/(as distinct from) the thing that the statement refers to - these are two contrasting terms used in philosophical discussion/works differentiating between the form of the statement and what the statement refers to - (while quite subtle and technical, these two terms are useful in highlighting the difference between the qualities of a statement as distinct from the truth or otherwise of what the statement seeks to convey) - for example many children's statements can be criticized 'de dicto', while being brilliant 'de re' - (note that there are more complex applications of these terms)
de die in diem (diem ex die)from day to daycontinuously/day in, day out/without a break
de factoof factin reality/in practice (especially contrasted with something which exists in in a lesser way theory or in law, see de jure/iure)
dei gratiaby the grace of godby the grace of god (traditionally implying a divine right, such as a monarch's title/status)
de jure (de iure)according to lawexisting legally/legally sanctioned/legally approved
delineavitdrawn by(of a work of art) created by (followed by the artist's name)
delerium tremenstrembling deliriumthe DTs/bodily shaking caused by nervous disorder from alcohol abuse
denarius/denari/denariismall common Roman silver coinin English money history 'D' or 'd' for denarius came to denote pence in pre-decimalisation pounds shillings pence (LSD) - (the denari equated loosely to a labourer's daily pay) - the L and S in LSD also originated from ancient Latin, 'libra' and 'solidus nummus'
deo volente (d.v.)god willinggod willing - if possible
deus ex machinagod out of a machineperson/thing/event which suddenly unexpectedly resolves a problem - also a contrived resolution of a plot in a dramatic work such as a play or film
de nihilo nihilfrom nothing comes nothingnothing comes from nothing/don't expect something to come from nothing
de novoanewanew, refreshed
deperire / depereohopelessly in love(to be) utterly/helplessly/hopelessly in love (with someone/something)
divide et imperadivide and ruledivide your opponents to defeat them (a maxim adopted and popularized by Machiavelli)
doce ut discaslearn by teachingteach in order to learn
docendo discimuslearning by teachingwe learn something by teaching it to others
doctus cum librolearned with a bookhaving knowledge without practical experience
Domine, dirige nosLord, direct usLord/God, direct us (God is our guide) - traditional official motto of London
Dominus vobsicum/Dominus tecumGod be with you (plural)/God be with you (singular)God be with you (all)/God be with you (to an individual) - a traditional way to say farewell or goodbye
dramatis personaethe persons of the dramacast of characters (in a play or film, or situation, etc)
dum spiro sperowhile I breathe, I hopewhile there is life in me I can still hope
dum tacent clamantthough they are silent they cry aloudtheir silence speaks volumes (usually referring to silence being an effective admission or indication of guilt or fault)
dum vita est spes estwhile there is life there is hopewhile there's life there's hope
dura matertough mother(medical/biological term for) the outer membrane of the brain and spinal cord - the Latin term is itself derived from an earlier fuller Arabic term, loosely 'thick mother of the brain'
ecce homobehold the manconsidered by advocates, and represented by artists, of biblical history, as the words of Pontias Pilate in presenting Jesus Christ to the crowd after flagellation prior to crucifixion
ecce signumbehold the signlook at the proof - examine the evidence - the proof is in front of you, so look at it
e contrarioon the contraryon the contrary - actually, the opposite is true
editio cum notis variorumedition with various notesa technical academic/scholar term referring to a version of text which contains different interpretations and notes and comments from experts
editio princepsfirst editionthe first printed edition (of a book especially)
e.g. (exempli gratia)for the sake of examplefor example, or for instance
emeritusa soldier who has served his time honourably/honorably and earned his dischargedenoting the title holder (for example a professor) has retired and retains the title (plus the word 'emeritus') as a mark of having served with distinction - the original meaning derives from soldiers in the Roman army, from the verb 'mereri', to earn
emerita(female form of emeritus)(a relatively modern adaptation of the conventional emeritus male/general form above)
e pluribus unumone out of (from) manyone (big thing) made from many smaller parts - motto of the USA
ergothereforetherefore - and so it follows that.. (linking a cause or situation with a result or conclusion)
errare humanum estto err is humanpeople occasionally naturally make mistakes - popularized by Alexander Pope's 'An Essay on Criticism' which stated 'To err is human; to forgive, divine' - this is an acceptance of human weakness
et al (et alii/et aliae/et alia)and others (abbreviation - male/female/neuter full versions)and other men/women/factors (et al is the abbreviation - et alii is 'and other men'; et aliae is 'and other women'; et alia is 'and other things' - traditionally speech etiquette suggested that "...educated people do not ever actually say 'et al', instead they say 'and others'...")
etc (et cetera)and the restand so on - typically replacing potentially additional items in a listing of similar factors
et nunc et sempernow and for everfrom now on
et seq (et sequentes/sequentia)and the following...usually abbreviated 'et seq' - (or seqq, sqq)
et tu, Bruteyou also, Brutusrealization, acknowledgment, and accusation that an apparent trusted friend or ally is actually an enemy - the expression was popularized by Plutarch's and Shakespeare's telling of the killing of Julius Caesar by conspirators including his previous friend Brutus
et ux (et uxor) / et virand wife / and husband(legal terms meaning) and wife / and husband
ex animofrom the heartsincerely
ex astris scientiafrom the stars, knowledge'From the Stars, Knowledge' - a contrived retrospective Latin expression created as the maxim of the Starfleet Academy in the film/TV franchise Star Trek.
ex cathedrafrom the chairwith authority - refers to statements made by experts, or claimed to be (cathedra referred to a teacher's chair before it more famously meant the Pope's chair)
excud (excudit)he/she who struck this (made by)made by... a traditional printer's or engraver's term preceding the name of the creator/maker/writer
ex dolo malo (ex dolo malo non oritur actio)an action (in court) does not arise from frauda Latin legal term equating to 'fraud' - deriving distortedly from the full original sense that a court action cannot be viable if based on a fraud
excelsiorever upwardever upward
exeatlet him/her go forthpermission to be absent - traditionally an exeat granted permission for a priest to leave a monastery - the term also extended to absence from a university
exempli gratia (e.g.)for the sake of examplefor example, or for instance
ex faciefrom the facea legal term used typically when referring to an obviously unreliable document - the term in this context equates to 'obviously' or 'needing no further examination'
ex gratiaout of goodnesspayment or reward given freely without obligation
exithe/she goes outa single actor leaves the stage
ex librisfrom the booksfrom the library of... (owner's name)
ex mero motuout of pure simple impulsespontaneously - (implication being no external influence)
ex nihilo nihil fitnothing comes from nothingnought comes from nought -
ex partefrom a partyfrom one side only - only one side is represented at a legal hearing (the other side is absent)
ex pede Herculemfrom the foot, a Herculesfrom a small sample the whole thing can be estimated - an early principle of extrapolation or projection, said to derive from Pythagoras' calculations in estimating the size of Hercules from his foot size, in turn inferred from the scale of the Olympia stadium
experto crediteexperience gives credibilitytrust one who has the experience - from experience a person has credibility
ex post factofrom what happens afterwardsknowledge or law after an event applied retrospectively to the event - similar to 'with the benefit of hindsight', or the sense of 'knowing now what we did not know then'
exuent / exuent omnesthey go out / they all go outthey leave the stage - stage direction terminology
ex ungue leonemfrom a claw, the lionfrom a small sample the whole thing can be estimated - equating to ex pede Herculem
ex uno disce omnesfrom one deduce allfrom a small sample the whole thing can be estimated - equating to ex pede Herculem
facta non verbaactions speak louder than wordsactions speak louder than words - judge by deed not what is said
fecit (F.)he/she made (it)made by... (creator's name) - traditional term used by artists/makers - separately F may stand for 'filius', meaning 'son'
felo de sefelon of himselfsuicide
festina lentehasten slowlymore haste less speed
fiat luxlet there be lightlet there be light - (alternatively represented by the rarer Latin 'lux sit')
Fidei Defensor (Fid Def or fd)Defender of the FaithTitle first given to Henry VIII of England by Pope Leo X in 1521. Removed by Rome c.1530 after Henry divorced catholic Catherine of Arragon, and reinistated later in his reign as defender of the protestant faith. The title endures to modern times, shown in official references and on British coins, usually abbreviated FD.
fide et amoreby faith and loveby faith and love
Fidei Defensor (FD)Defender of the Faithtraditional additional title of English/British monarchs, given by the Vatican - often abbreviated to FD
floruit (fl)he/she flourishedwhen a historical character was most productive/active - used in biographical information, especially if birth/death dates are unknown, the 'fl' symbol appears with the year(s) of his/her prominence
fons et origosource and originthe source and origin (of something)
fronti nulla fidesappearance is not reliableappearances can be deceptive - or 'don't judge a book by its cover'
fugit horaflies the hourtime flies - time passes quickly
genius locispirit of the placethe atmosphere of somewhere including its influence on visitors
gradatim ferociter by degrees, ferociouslyMotto of Jeff Bezos' private spaceflight company Blue Origin, which officially treats "Step by step, ferociously" as the English translation
grammatici certantgrammarians dispute (are disputing)experts are discussing (a case/matter/dispute) - this refers to situations that are subject to official review before a decision or resolution is made
gratias tibi agothank youthank you
habeas corpus(you) shall have the (arrested person's) body in courta legal order for an arrested person to attend court, especially from the accused standpoint, so that unless lawful grounds are offered for detention then the person must be released
hic et nunchere and nowhere and now - immediately, forthwith -for example when demanding immediate payment
hic jacet / iacethere lieshere lies (the body of..) - a tombstone term
hic situs estthis is the placethis is the place
hic sunt dracones / leoneshere be dragons/lionsunchartered territory - these are very old references to unchartered territories, used on maps, and since then popularized in dramatic works
hoc annoin this yearin this year
hoc locoin this placehere
honoris causafor the sake of honour/honordenotes an academic or other qualification given on merit, rather than by official examination
hora fugitthe hour fliestime passes quickly - time is pressing
hora somni (h.s.)at the hour of sleepat bedtime - (medical term)
horribile dictuhorrible to saya warning before telling an awful or upsetting description/report
iacta / jacta alea estthe die is castthe die is cast - the decision/commitment is made and irreversible (see the die is cast in cliches origins)
ianuis / januis clausiswith closed doorsbehind closed doors (referring to a legal hearing or court or meeting)
ibid. (ibidem)in the same placein the same source referenced in the previous entry - (an academic referencing mechanism to save space and unnecessary repeating of the same detail when citing sources)
id. (idem)the samethe same author (as previously referenced) - an academic space-saving device used in citing authors
(i.e.) id estthat is (to say more clearly...)in other words, in more detail, or to say more clearly and fully.. (this very common term is often misused in place of 'e.g.' (for example), whereas 'i.e.' means that clarification of a previous point is to follow
in medias resinto the middle of thingsthe way a dramatic work such as a play or story begins
INRI (Iesus [Jesus] Nazarenus Rex Iudaeoreum [Juaeoreum])Jesus of Nazareth, King of the JewsJesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews -
ignorantia legis neminem excusatignorance of the law does not excuseignorance of the law is no defence/defense for breaking the law
ignorantia non excusatignorance does not excuseignorance is not an excuse (for wrong-doing) - the implication is that a person's moral code should not have to rely on specific instruction to avoid wrong deeds
in absentiain (one's) absencedenotes action against or award to someone in their absence, for whatever reason - for example criminal convictions and academic awards
in aertenumfor everfor ever, in perpetuity
in articulo mortisin the grasp of death(a statement made) at the point of death - traditionally statements made 'in articulo mortis' have at times been considered additionally believable because the person had nothing to gain at that stage from lying - alternative to 'in extremis'
in camerain a chamberin private - typically court/legal proceedings which exclude public and press
incipithere beginsdenoting the start of old/ancient texts
(bis/ter/quater) in die (b.i.d./t.i.d./q.i.d.)(twice/three times/four times) in a daymedical abbreviations - (for example instructions for taking tablets)
in dubio (in dubio pro reo )in doubt, for the accusedthe defendant has the benefit of the doubt - innocent until proven guilty
in essein beingactually existing - contrasting with 'in posse'
in extensoin fullword for word, fully and entirely - referring to a text or paper of some sort, emphasize there has been no edit/removal
in extremisin endat death - at the point of (a person's) death - alternative to 'in articulo mortis' - mostly significant in assessing reliability of statements made by the deceased in relation to a case
in fine (i.f.)in the endat the end of (a stated reference or page, etc)
in flagrante (in flagrante delicto)in flaming crime(caught) in the act (of wrong-doing) - often referring to the discovery of sexual liaisons and adulterous relationships
in foroin forumin court (legal term) 
infrabelow(see note) below - directs readers to explanatory detail below the item concerned, often preceded with 'vide' (see) - infra is also a prefix meaning below, under, beneath, 'sub', lower than, etc (infrastructure, infrared, etc) - broadly contrasting with 'ultra' (beyond/to extreme degree)
infra dignitatem/infra digbelow dignitybeneath (a person's) dignity or normally expected standards, referring to actions or behaviour/behavior
in futuroin futurein the future
in illo ordine (i.o.)in that orderrespectively
in limineon the thresholdabout to happen
in loco parentisin place of a parentguardianship or responsibility for a minor
in media resinto the middle of thingsintroductory statement before telling a story, or a the start of a play
in memoriamin memoryin the memory of - (typically an inscription on a memorial stone or other material)
in ovoin the eggimmature, undeveloped
in pectorein the breastin secret
in perpetuumfor everforever
in plenoin fullin full, complete (typically referring to a payment)
in possepotentiallypotentially - contrasting with 'in esse'
in propria personain personin person, personally
in re (re)in the matter ofregarding - alternatively and more technically in legal matters (the full form 'in re') means that a case is uncontested 
in saecula saeculorumfor ages of agesfor ever and ever
in sein itselfin itself (an alternative to 'per se' - by itself)
in situin placein its natural location (contrasting with 'in vitro' - in glass [a glass test-tube])
instante mense (inst.)in the present month(substitute term for whatever the current month is - (for example "...your letter of 5th inst. refers...) - ult = last (month); prox = next (month)
in statu quoin the state in which(slightly different to 'status quo' - in statu quo refers to a situation at a specified time, relative to a subsequent or prior different situation, rather like saying 'in statu quo [the situation/condition/state] in the 1970s...' or 'in statu quo [the situation/condition/state] before the business was floated...' )
inter aliaamong other thingsamong other things, included in other considerations
inter aliosamong other peopleamong other people, included within a wider groups of people
inter nosbetween usbetween us, among ourselves, between ourselves
inter paresbetween equalsbetween our peer group (of a discussion or circulated notes)
inter sebetween themselvesbetween them, among themselves
inter vivosbetween the living(for example referring to transfer of property) between two living people, (as distinct from a transfer following someone's death)
in totoin totalcompletely, wholly, fully, altogether
in vino veritasin wine the truthpeople speak freely when under the influence of alcohol, alcohol/wine loosens the tongue
in vitroin glassin a test-tube, (developed) in a laboratory or artificial environment - contrasting with 'in situ'
in vivoin life(developed/experimented) in a living thing/organism - contrasting with 'in vitro'
ipsissima verbathe exact wordsverbatim - word for word - (referring to quoted remarks)
ipso factoby that factas a direct immediate consequence of that fact/act
justitia omnibusjustice for alljustice to all, be fair to everyone
lapsus linguaeerror of tongueslip of the tongue, verbal mistake
lapsus memoriaeerror of memorymistaken memory, faulty recollection, remembered wrong
lex locilaw of the placelaw of the land, local jurisdiction
lex non scriptalaw not writtenunwritten law, common law
lex scriptalaw writtenformal written statute
libra (lb and £)balance, set of scales, poundthe origin of the £ pound sterling symbol and pound weight (lb) symbol - libra, meaning a set of weighing scales, (which separately became a sign of the Zodiac) meant a pound in weight, and (via late Middle Ages English) a pound in money (weight and money were directly related), being the origin of the traditional pre-decimalisation 'L' denoting the £ pound-sign in LSD (pounds shillings pence) - the S and D symbols were also derived from ancient Latin money terms - 'solidus nummus' and 'denarius' - separately libra means book (hence 'library')
licetit is allowedit is allowed/permitted/licensed
lis sub judice/iudice (sub judice)lawsuit before the judgecase not yet decided
loco citato (loc. cit.)place cited (work)in the work/place/source previously referenced - (a referencing note used by scholars/writers/academics, to avoid repeating entire sources)
locum tenens (locum)place holding (person)deputy, substitute, temporary replacement (for example of a doctor)
locus classicusplace classic (work)authoritative work/source/extract/text, the generally most highly regarded source (a referencing note referring to a work considered highly authoritative)
locus delectiplace (of) crimescene of the crime, crime scene
locus in quoplace in whichplace in question (where the incident in question happened)
loquitur (loq.)he/she speaks(script note that) a person speaks - (a dramatic/stage direction)
lucri causagain causefor the sake of (monetary) reward/gain/enrichment - in hope of financial reward - 'profit driven' - motivated by money
magister artium (M.A.)master of artsMaster of Arts - university degree - also abbreviated reversed, AM 
magna cum laudewith great praisesecond honors/honours university degree (see cum laude)
magnum opusgreat workthe/a major work of a creative (writer, composer, etc)
majorgreatgreat, significant - major/maior is the Latin comparative of magnus, great
mala fidebad faithin bad faith - fraudulent - (contrasting with 'bona fide')
male captus, bene detentuswrongly captured, properly detained(controversial legal principle asserting that) improper arrest should not prevent proper detention and trial - (the principle is not universally enforceable)
malesuada famespersuaded to evil by hungercrime (that is) produced by hunger - (see Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs)
malo animowith evil intentequating and evolving to the legal phrase 'with malice aforethought'
malum in se / malum prohibitumwrong in itself / wrong according to law(legal terms differentiating that something is) inherently wrong / wrong in law - (for example an ambulance which jumps a red light en route to an accident is committing an offence which is 'malum prohibitum', but not 'malum in se')
mandamuswe command(a legal writ) instruction from a higher court to a lower court
manu propria (m.p.)(signed) by own hand(old rare term indicating that a signature was made) by the signatory's own hand - (where a signature is missing, or a printed document contains a copy of a signature)
mea culpaby my faultI am responsible for the problem - acknowledgment of guilt or blame
mediamiddle (plural)media now means various things in English, notably the news and information industries ('mass media'), and ways or materials for communicating in the broadest sense - the origin is Latin, from the singular word medium, meaning middle, which caused the word to evolve in English to refer to an agency or means of doing something (the sense of a body or mechanism between two parties, acting as a tool, enabler, conduit, translator, communicator)
medicinae doctor (M.D.)doctor of medicinedesignation of a university degree and doctor of medicine, a general practitioner (GP)
membrum virilemember male (reproductive organ)polite term for penis
memo (memorandum est)it must be remembered (that..)a written/audio or other note - (to self or more commonly others in a work group) - a 'memo' was the pre-internet age standard quick recorded paper communication between work people, typically from a manager to subordinates, or fellow-managers or superior staff - before desktop computers, memos were typically hand-written or dictated by managers and typed and copied using carbon paper (pre-1970s), later photocopiers (pre-1990s), by typists/secretaries - these intensive production methods ensured that old-style paper memos were generated and circulated in relatively tiny volumes compared to the billions of modern emails
mens sana in corpore sanosound mind, sound bodysound in mind and body
mirabile dictu/visuwonderful to relate/see

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