Homework Help Free Physics Books

If quantum cosmologists can reconcile quantum mechanics with Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, we may be in for a wild ride, as scientists will finally have a single theory with the potential to describe all aspects of time and space in the universe. In short, we will be on our way to knowing the unknowable. Quite exciting, to say the least. At the heart of quantum theory lies such ideas as the particle nature of waves, the wave-like properties of particles, the quantized energy levels of atoms, and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. It is from these fundamental assumptions about the natural world that we may be able to unlock its secrets through the development of a unified field theory. A good course in quantum physics will take students through the following areas:

  • The wave function
  • Time-independent Schrodinger equation
  • Formalism
  • Quantum mechanics in three dimensions
  • Identical particles
  • Time-independent perturbation theory
  • The variational principle
  • The WKB approximation
  • Time-dependent perturbation theory
  • The adiabatic approximation
  • Scattering

There are plenty of books on quantum physics to be found on Google and Amazon.com. There is also a nice collection of books and journals devoted to this area which students can find at the Springer website.

 

The variational principle

If a quantum system has a Hamiltonian independent of time  and one chooses a normalized “well behaved” function  (i.e. a continuous function for which the first and second derivatives exist) then

where  is the lowest energy eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian (bound energy).

In other words, if we chose a random test function  the bounded energy will be minimum of the expression

Question 1

Consider a one-dimensional system of a particle with a potential energy:

Make a graph of V vs X. Use the test function  to determine the energy of the ground level. Note that there is no variational parameter.  Note that is given by the equation (why?):

Solution:

If you consider a test function  having no variational parameter (that is having no constant coefficients inside) then the eigenvalue of the bound level can be approximated by

 

Since

We can write:

since we have:

Question 2

Consider you have a test function:

where f1 and f2 are real functions. Find the energy of the bound level in terms of the integrals

For the special case when:

 

find also the rapport of the coefficients:  

Solution:

If you have a test function of the type

Then the energy of the bound level is given by (like above):

 

Which for:

 

gives the rapport of coefficients:

 

To have a solution of the above system of two equations one needs to have the characteristic determinant = 0. In other words the condition for existence of E states is:

or

 

To fulfill our tutoring mission of online education, our college homework help and online tutoring centers are standing by 24/7, ready to assist college students who need homework help with all aspects of quantum physics. Our physics tutors can help with all your projects, large or small, and we challenge you to find better online quantum physics tutoring anywhere.

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General

Can I take a course at HippoCampus for credit?

How do I enroll in a course at HippoCampus?

Are there any fees to take your courses?

How do I make a comment or ask a question?

How do I get individual help with my homework assignment?

What are the preferred texts? Do I need to purchase all the texts that are listed?

Teaching

How can I use HippoCampus in my classroom?

How can I use HippoCampus in my home school?

Can I use the resources you have available for my homeschoolers?

Do you know of any wet lab resources to accompany HippoCampus content?

Is there a script, app, or something that can be used to track student use of HippoCampus?

Can I share my customized HippoCampus content (such as Playlists) with my fellow teachers?

Technical

Can I download the video?

Can I change the size of the video window?

Why won't the Environmental Science animations play?

What if my page scroll bars or "submit" button are not showing?

I can't find closed captioning. Isn't this a violation of 504/508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act?

Content

Where does the content from your site come from?

There is an error in the multimedia presentation. Can you fix it?

How do I report a course errata item?

Why are there answer keys available to the students for the end-of-chapter tests?

Where are the answers to the review questions?

The audio in some videos within the Religion course are problematic. Can you fix it?

Why aren't the lab sections in Environmental Science appearing?

HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)*

How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP? What about DANTE and CLEP?

Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the AP Course Audit?

Are the courses at HippoCampus AP approved?

General

Can I take a course at HippoCampus for credit?

We are a non-profit organization and provide the content at our websites for self-improvement only as part of our mission. You cannot get credit for it since we are not a school.

How do I enroll in a course at HippoCampus?

We are not a school, so you cannot enroll in a course, but individuals are welcome to use the materials for free as study aids.

Are there any fees to take your courses?

There is no charge for individual users at HippoCampus.

How do I make a comment or ask a question?

You can email a comment or question directly to Help@HippoCampus.org, or you can click the "Comments and Questions" icon in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble.

How do I get individual help with my homework assignment?

While we understand that you may need assistance with your homework, we cannot provide the answers to your problems or individual assistance. We hope you can use our website as a tool to help you learn the subject matter so that you can find the answers.

What are the preferred texts? Do I need to purchase all the texts that are listed?

We correlate our content to a variety of widely used textbooks so that you may choose the books you wish. You do not need to buy any of the books mentioned.

Teaching

How can I use HippoCampus in my classroom?

More than half the use of HippoCampus occurs during classroom hours, when teachers go online to project topic lectures and show simulations launched from the HippoCampus site. Teachers can use the site as is, or can create custom playlists of topics in their custom HippoCampus page by creating a free user account. Just click the Log In link in the top-right corner of any HippoCampus page to get started. Further information can be found in the HippoCampus User's Guide.

How can I use HippoCampus in my home school?

HippoCampus is not a credit-granting organization, and does not monitor, grade, or give transcripts to anyone using the site. However, many home schooling families have used HippoCampus content to supplement or guide their home curriculum, and we welcome them as users.

HippoCampus is made possible by the members of The NROC Project, and many NROC members offer credit for courses that contain HippoCampus content.

Can I use the resources you have available for my homeschoolers?

Yes, although homeschoolers should realize that the content presented is not a complete course. The content is intended to have an instructor to provide supplemental assignments and instruction. Since there is no teacher available through HippoCampus, the parent must take the role of instructor.

Do you know of any wet lab resources to accompany HippoCampus content?

We have done research to identify some very good wet lab resources for virtual schools that could also be used successfully by homeschoolers. Here are a few of the options:

Smart Science, https://www.smartsciencelearning.com/

Smart Science® virtual labs are a complete science learning system with online assessments and reports, delivery of all course activities and student and curriculum tracking for current and prior terms. In 2007 the College Board approved AP science courses that incorporate Smart Science® AP labs as their lab components. Full sets of labs (20-30 labs per course) are offered for a fee.

Hands-On Labs, https://holscience.com/

The science lab kits and products offered by Hands-On Labs, Inc. were specifically designed and selected by practicing distance educators to serve the "At Home" science study markets. These kits are used with web courses, telecommunication courses, home-schooling programs, and all other forms of independent study.

Is there a script, app, or something that can be used to track student use of HippoCampus?

Students are not required to log in to HippoCampus.org, so there is no way to track student use from the public site. However, institutions that are members of the National Repository of Online Courses (NROC) have access to HippoCampus content through their school's learning management system, which can track use, assignments, and grades.

Can I share my customized HippoCampus content (such as Playlists) with my fellow teachers?

No. Our Terms of Use specify that HippoCampus is provided by the Monterey Institute for Technology and Education for personal enrichment and individual instructor use only. The unlicensed use of this content by educational organizations or commercial vendors is prohibited.

Technical

Can I download the video?

Unfortunately, there is no way to download the video from our website. As an individual user, however, you may create a custom HippoCampus page and then link to an individual topic. After you have created your custom page, there will be buttons in the upper right corner that allow you to view the text version (when available), bookmark, or link to the topic.

Can I change the size of the video window?

Yes, in multiple ways. First, there is a "maximize" button beneath the bottom left corner of the Media Window which will widen the screen. There is also a "hide column" button beneath the first column of content in the Browse Topics tab. These can be used simultaneously or independently. For some content, such as that from Khan Academy, a small button in the lower right corner of the media control bar allows the content to be shown full screen. For other content, such as Algebra I--An Open Course, right-clicking the mouse over the video content will open a menu that offers Full Screen as an option.

Why won't the Environmental Science animations play?

This problem occurs if you are using version 7.1.3 of Quicktime® or higher. To fix the problem, go into the QuickTime "Preferences."

What if my page scroll bars or "submit" button are not showing?

Your screen resolution may be set too low. The Algebra course requires that your screen resolution be at 1024x768 or higher. Most of the other content requires a resolution of 600x800 or higher.

I can't find closed captioning. Isn't this a violation of 504/508 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act?

Much, but not all, of the content at HippoCampus is closed captioned.


Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act to requires Federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology accessible to people with disabilities. The law applies to all Federal agencies when they develop, procure, maintain, or use electronic and information technology. The educational resources provided at HippoCampus.org were not procured by, and are not made available through, a Federal agency, so the law is not applicable to the content at this website.

Content

Where does the content from your site come from?

All the content we provide at HippoCampus is created by other educational institutions and contributed to us to distribute as part of our non-profit mission.

There is an error in the multimedia presentation. Can you fix it?

Due to the complexity of modifying the multimedia content, we cannot always correct errors within the video presentations. There is an Errata icon that appears with any topics in which a known error has been identified. We encourage our users to report any errors they discover so that we can notify everyone of the problem.

There is also an errata sheet available for some courses if you select "Launch a Full Course."

How do I report a course errata item?

Use the "Comments and Questions" feature in the Media Window control bar. The icon looks like a small speech bubble, and allows you to send in a description of the error directly from the relevant piece of media. Or you can send an email to Help@HippoCampus.org.

Please describe the issue as precisely as possible.

If you provide your email address, we will inform you about the correction process, or ask any follow-up question necessary to clarify the report.

Why are there answer keys available to the students for the end-of-chapter tests?

The tests that appear on our website are intended as open tests for self-assessment only. They are not intended to be secure tests since the answers are freely available at several websites.

Where are the answers to the review questions?

There are answer keys available for the chapter tests but not for the review questions. The answer keys for the chapter tests are located as a link right under the chapter test link.

The audio in some videos within the Religion course are problematic. Can you fix it?

This is a problem that was in the original content we received from the course developer. We have no way of fixing this at this time.

Why aren't the lab sections in Environmental Science appearing?

The Environmental Science labs require you to have Java installed on your computer. You can get the latest version at http://www.java.com/en/download/manual.jsp

HippoCampus and Advanced Placement (AP)*

How are homeschoolers using HippoCampus for AP? What about DANTE and CLEP?

We know a lot of homeschoolers use HippoCampus. We are often asked if homeschoolers can study the content at HippoCampus and then just take and pass the AP exam.

HippoCampus courses were designed to address the AP College Board criteria. However, as with any teaching resource, they should not be considered a singular solution, but can be used as a good foundation for an AP teaching curriculum. The courses at HippoCampus have not currently been mapped to the CLEP and DANTE tests.

If you wish to receive college credit for taking an AP course, most colleges will require that the course have been approved by the College Board. Schools wishing to give their students AP credit must go through the AP audit process. The same is true for homeschoolers. The AP Course Ledger section below gives more information about the audit process.

AP Course Ledger

The AP Course Ledger is a comprehensive and public registry of all courses authorized to use the AP label on student transcripts. The Ledger is an annual and culminating product of the AP Course Audit, a process by which college faculty confirm that courses submitted by AP teachers and schools provide students with the essential elements of a college level experience. As an exclusively Web-based registry, the Ledger is published annually in November and updated weekly throughout the academic year to reflect newly authorized courses.

Here is a link to AP Audit information, (and you can find other links on this page to various other resources):

http://www.collegeboard.com/html/apcourseaudit/

Can schools order and administer AP Exams without completing the AP Course Audit?

Yes, the AP Course Audit is only required for schools desiring to:

-- use the "AP" designation on students' transcripts

-- be listed in the ledger of authorized AP courses provided each fall to college and university admissions offices and the public.

Schools that simply offer the AP Exam as an opportunity for their students to earn college credit, without actually labeling the school's courses "AP" on students' transcripts, do not need to participate in the AP Course Audit, and can continue offering AP Exams to their students.

Are the courses at HippoCampus AP approved?

Our AP content is a good resource to help students prepare for AP exams. However, while we provide content resources, we do not have instructors who teach the courses. In order to be authorized by the College Board and put in the AP Course Ledger, an instructor must submit a syllabus for the course. While we do not have instructors who teach our courses, we do have NROC member schools that teach the courses for credit and they have been approved through the AP College Board.

*AP, Advanced Placement and Advanced Placement Program are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this content.

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